THE HUMAN VASCULAR system carries a massive network of arteries, veins and capillaries that ferry blood – and the oxygen and nutrients it includes – to all corners of the body. It's a big system – the U.S. National Institute on Aging estimates that if you put all of the blood vessels in the human physique quit to end, they'd stretch some 60,000 miles long. Keeping these blood highways clear and free to pump blood efficiently is indispensable to survival and correct health. But when a blockage occurs, two frequent medical occasions may additionally occur: a stroke or a coronary heart attack.
What Is a Stroke?
Dr. Tamer I. Sallam, assistant professor of medicine at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, says that "a stroke occurs when there is an abrupt interruption of blood flow to the brain."
There are actually three different types of stroke that can occur, including:
Ischemic stroke: "This is the most common type of stroke," Sallam says. "A blood clot prevents oxygen and nutrients from reaching the brain."
Hemorrhagic stroke: "This occurs when a weakened blood vessel ruptures and blood leaks into the surrounding brain tissue," Sallam says.
Transient ischemic attacks (TIAs): "Also referred to as a mini-stroke, these occur after blood flow fails to reach part of the brain," Sallam explains. Though they don't cause permanent damage to the brain, TIAs should be taken seriously and considered as a warning that you may be in for another more serious stroke soon.
Signs and symptoms of a stroke can vary from person to person, but someone who's having a stroke may experience:
Slurred speech, Headaches, Numbness and tingling, Muscle weakness, Paralysis and/or difficulty walking, Facial droop, Sudden confusion and difficulty speaking or comprehending speech or text, Loss of balance, Symptoms that seem to affect one side of the body only, Sudden difficulty seeing in one or both eyes.
What Is a Heart Attack?
Similar to a stroke, heart attacks also feature an interruption of blood flow, but to the heart instead of the brain. This is most commonly due to a clogged artery, Sallam says.
Typical signs and symptoms of a heart attack include:
Chest discomfort that may feel like pressure, squeezing or pain; Pain in the upper body, particularly in one or both arms, the neck, back, jaw or stomach; A feeling of fullness in the chest; A feeling of severe indigestion; Shortness of breath; Nausea or cold sweats; Lightheadedness; Flu-like symptoms; Paleness in the face or looking unwell.
"The pain does not have to be severe or debilitating," Sallam says, and for some people, pain may be less noticeable. "Women are less likely to experience chest pain and may present with other signs like unusual fatigue or upper body discomfort." Women may also be more likely to experience extreme fatigue, vomiting, toothaches or pain in the arms and legs.
As with strokes, heart attacks can be treated with antiplatelet medications, such as aspirin, and other drugs that control some of the risk factors such as high cholesterol or blood pressure. Statin medications that lower cholesterol levels are one such intervention, Sallam explains. "Early phase of treatment includes a cardiac catherization procedure to open the artery blockage." He adds that the American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association "recommends opening the artery within 90 minutes of onset of symptoms for optimal outcomes."
Note:- Explore your thesis about Stroke/Heart Attack in "27th International Conference and Expo on Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery" on September 28-29, 2020 in Beijing, China.
David Ian | Program Manager
Cardio Thoracic Surgery 2020
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